# icographic-magazine-issues-1-14

    Haris Butt

    Living a little @Slate

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Icographic 1

Table of Contents 2 Speakers at VISCOM ‘71 3 ICOGRADA Congress and exhibition The diagram below tries to clarify the content of the VisCom 71 Congress on the Learning Industry. The difference between VisCom 71 and other conferences on visual communication is that it is attempting to combine a number of disciplines which are affecting the industry. In this way it is hoped that the problems will be viewed in their totality and so reveal the relationships between the various activities and their interdependence. 4 Computer animated movies KC Knowlton The illustration shows a sequence of six stills that were produced using the author's new computer language, EXPLØR. EXPLØR is designed for explicit patterns, logical operations, and randomness, and the author will discuss its applications during his speech at VisCom 71. 5 Differentiating images ltsuo Sakane ltsuo Sakane's article was originally published in 'Graphic Design' (Japan) edited by Masuru Katsumie. 6 Symbol design in the GDR Gerard Voight Gerard Voigt is a graphic designer and the present Deputy President of the Verbund Bildende Kuenstler of the German Democratic Republic. He was a winner of the Trade Prize from the District of Halle and a winner of the Art Prize from the city of Halle. 7 Two Belgian designers Jacques Richez, Michel Olyff 8 Armin Hofmann Armin Hofmann is the first Honorary Fellow of the Society of Typographical Designers. An exhibition at the Central School of Art of his work was opened in January by Keith Murgatroyd, President of the Society which sponsored the show. 10 Design and science by Paul Kenny Paul Kenny was, until recently, teaching at the Faculty of Creative Arts at San Francisco State College. His article is devoted to the search for a possible new visual language utilising the research of human physiology and experiments in visual communication. 11 Holography 12 ICOGRADA exhibition in Prague Top photograph shows, fr

Table of Contents 2 Speakers at VISCOM ‘71 3 ICOGRADA Congress and exhibition The diagram below tries to clarify the content of the VisCom 71 Congress on the Learning Industry. The difference between VisCom 71 and other conferences on visual communication is that it is attempting to combine a number of disciplines which are affecting the industry. In this way it is hoped that the problems will be viewed in their totality and so reveal the relationships between the various activities and their interdependence. 4 Computer animated movies KC Knowlton The illustration shows a sequence of six stills that were produced using the author's new computer language, EXPLØR. EXPLØR is designed for explicit patterns, logical operations, and randomness, and the author will discuss its applications during his speech at VisCom 71. 5 Differentiating images ltsuo Sakane ltsuo Sakane's article was originally published in 'Graphic Design' (Japan) edited by Masuru Katsumie. 6 Symbol design in the GDR Gerard Voight Gerard Voigt is a graphic designer and the present Deputy President of the Verbund Bildende Kuenstler of the German Democratic Republic. He was a winner of the Trade Prize from the District of Halle and a winner of the Art Prize from the city of Halle. 7 Two Belgian designers Jacques Richez, Michel Olyff 8 Armin Hofmann Armin Hofmann is the first Honorary Fellow of the Society of Typographical Designers. An exhibition at the Central School of Art of his work was opened in January by Keith Murgatroyd, President of the Society which sponsored the show. 10 Design and science by Paul Kenny Paul Kenny was, until recently, teaching at the Faculty of Creative Arts at San Francisco State College. His article is devoted to the search for a possible new visual language utilising the research of human physiology and experiments in visual communication. 11 Holography 12 ICOGRADA exhibition in Prague Top photograph shows, fr

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Table of Contents 1 Television as universal educator Aubrey Singer To design a television system not merely for social communication, but also capable of responding to a whole range of intellectual values and spiritual problems, is at the heart of the design challenge and of our present dilemma. Aubrey Singer contributes a challenging and controversial view of some of the problems raised by television broadcasting. He is at present Head of Features Group for BBC Television (United Kingdom). 2 Visual study in teaching animation Ion Popescu-Gape Ion Popescu-Gopo has been a painter, cartoonist, sculptor, journalist, film­ producer and film director. From 1950–1960 he was Head of the Bucharest Studio for Animated Films. In 1969 he took up his present appointment as Film and Television Officer of the World Health Organisation. 3 Defining the goals of education Asa Briggs The article published below is a transcript of the opening address for VisCom 71 given by Professor Asa Briggs, Vice Chancellor of the University of Sussex. 4 Visual communication and education Henry R Cassirer Henry R Cassirer joined UNESCO in 1952 and is Director of the Division of Use of Mass Media in Out-of­ School Education. He has written several books on the development of television and radio throughout the world and their use in education. 5 Laser holography as a new medium for visual communication Margaret Benyon and Jonathan Benthall This article has been based on a paper prepared by Margaret Benyon for the VisCom 71 Congress. Use has also been made of some extracts from an introductory note by Jonathan Benthall for a recent exhibition of Miss Benyon's work. 6 Some research into sign perception Ryszard Otreba Doctor Ryszard Otreba's article is a summary of some research that he carried out in connection with a recently published paper entitled 'variability of sign perception in horizontal motion'. Doctor Otreba is at present working at the Crakow Academy of Fine Art

Table of Contents 1 Television as universal educator Aubrey Singer To design a television system not merely for social communication, but also capable of responding to a whole range of intellectual values and spiritual problems, is at the heart of the design challenge and of our present dilemma. Aubrey Singer contributes a challenging and controversial view of some of the problems raised by television broadcasting. He is at present Head of Features Group for BBC Television (United Kingdom). 2 Visual study in teaching animation Ion Popescu-Gape Ion Popescu-Gopo has been a painter, cartoonist, sculptor, journalist, film­ producer and film director. From 1950–1960 he was Head of the Bucharest Studio for Animated Films. In 1969 he took up his present appointment as Film and Television Officer of the World Health Organisation. 3 Defining the goals of education Asa Briggs The article published below is a transcript of the opening address for VisCom 71 given by Professor Asa Briggs, Vice Chancellor of the University of Sussex. 4 Visual communication and education Henry R Cassirer Henry R Cassirer joined UNESCO in 1952 and is Director of the Division of Use of Mass Media in Out-of­ School Education. He has written several books on the development of television and radio throughout the world and their use in education. 5 Laser holography as a new medium for visual communication Margaret Benyon and Jonathan Benthall This article has been based on a paper prepared by Margaret Benyon for the VisCom 71 Congress. Use has also been made of some extracts from an introductory note by Jonathan Benthall for a recent exhibition of Miss Benyon's work. 6 Some research into sign perception Ryszard Otreba Doctor Ryszard Otreba's article is a summary of some research that he carried out in connection with a recently published paper entitled 'variability of sign perception in horizontal motion'. Doctor Otreba is at present working at the Crakow Academy of Fine Art

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Table of Contents 1 Introduction Ernest Hoch 2 A standard specification for print production Maurice Goldring and Angela Hackelsberger Maurice Goldring and Angela Hackelsberger are in practice as information design consultants (Maurice Goldring Associates, London). Maurice Goldring is chairman of the SIAD/STD Typo­graphers' Computer Working Group 4 On 'Typos': new Japanese type face Shin-ichi Seki Shin·ichi Seki is a lecturer at Shizuoka University and a member of the Japanese Society for Science of Design. 6 Designing for Nuffield Foundation science teaching projects Ivan and Robin Dodd Ivan and Robin Dodd were among the first British designers whose practice concentrated to a consider­able extent on design for education. 8 Our next issue Design education will be the theme of icographic 4, and the same issue will be devoted to the role of the designer in education—a role that is taking shape in various countries and in many forms. 10 Designing a periodical for a variety of textual needs Peter Burnhill Peter Burnhill is Head of Design Department at Stafford College of Art and Design. He is a member of the Working Party on Typographic Teaching and a founder member of the SIAD/STD Typographers’ Computer Working Group, one of whose study groups he chairs. 12 Penguin paperbacks Germano Faceta Germano Facetti is a member of Alliance Graphique lntenationale. As art director of Penguin Books Limited he was responsible for the well-known Penguin restyling programme. 14 Designing and producing a consumers' association magazine John Miles John Miles, a partner in Banks and Miles, London, discusses experiences with one of the periodicals for which their practice is responsible. 16 A new Hebrew sans serif for bilingual printing Asher Oron Asher Oran is a freelance graphic designer devoting part of his working week to the Graphic Design Department of the Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design, Jerusalem. 18 Language and readab

Table of Contents 1 Introduction Ernest Hoch 2 A standard specification for print production Maurice Goldring and Angela Hackelsberger Maurice Goldring and Angela Hackelsberger are in practice as information design consultants (Maurice Goldring Associates, London). Maurice Goldring is chairman of the SIAD/STD Typo­graphers' Computer Working Group 4 On 'Typos': new Japanese type face Shin-ichi Seki Shin·ichi Seki is a lecturer at Shizuoka University and a member of the Japanese Society for Science of Design. 6 Designing for Nuffield Foundation science teaching projects Ivan and Robin Dodd Ivan and Robin Dodd were among the first British designers whose practice concentrated to a consider­able extent on design for education. 8 Our next issue Design education will be the theme of icographic 4, and the same issue will be devoted to the role of the designer in education—a role that is taking shape in various countries and in many forms. 10 Designing a periodical for a variety of textual needs Peter Burnhill Peter Burnhill is Head of Design Department at Stafford College of Art and Design. He is a member of the Working Party on Typographic Teaching and a founder member of the SIAD/STD Typographers’ Computer Working Group, one of whose study groups he chairs. 12 Penguin paperbacks Germano Faceta Germano Facetti is a member of Alliance Graphique lntenationale. As art director of Penguin Books Limited he was responsible for the well-known Penguin restyling programme. 14 Designing and producing a consumers' association magazine John Miles John Miles, a partner in Banks and Miles, London, discusses experiences with one of the periodicals for which their practice is responsible. 16 A new Hebrew sans serif for bilingual printing Asher Oron Asher Oran is a freelance graphic designer devoting part of his working week to the Graphic Design Department of the Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design, Jerusalem. 18 Language and readab

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Table of Contents 2 Introduction 3 Creativity: a teachable skill? T F Warren T F Warren, an American psychologist, is currently a member of the Faculty of the University of Wisconsin, where he is engaged in teaching and research. 6 Visual communication in East Africa Walter Plata Walter Plata lectures in the Depart· ment of Design, University of Nairobi, Kenya. He was educated and trained in Germany, where he started designing visual communication in 1950. In 1961 he began teaching as assistant professor of graphic design at Rhode Island School of Design and has since been both a designer and teacher in many countries 8 National Institute of Design, Paldi, Ahmedabad, India Walter Plata Below, one of the projects undertaken by the Institute, the design of a Devanagari script suitable for mechan­ised printing. Devanagari script is used by the 237 million Hindi speaking people of India. Many of the other scripts used by the various linguistic groups in India are derived from Devanagari. Within the context of a national programme for mass education and improved communi­cation, the development of a Deva­nagari script suitable for mechanised printing, such as typewriting, type­casting and photocomposition, was vitally important. The consultant for this project was Adrian Frutiger. 9 An American view of British graphic design education Al Gowan Al Gowan is head of Graphic Design at Boston University, USA, and edits Designcourse, an international quarterly. He operates a freelance design office in Cambridge, Massachusetts. 10 Relating teaching to what is known about learning David Warren Piper David Warren Piper is an educational psychologist with considerable experience of teaching in design and architectural schools. He is currently working at the University Teaching Methods Unit of the University of London Institute of Education. 12 Learning at home for pre-school children 345 Limited is a company specializing in the prod

Table of Contents 2 Introduction 3 Creativity: a teachable skill? T F Warren T F Warren, an American psychologist, is currently a member of the Faculty of the University of Wisconsin, where he is engaged in teaching and research. 6 Visual communication in East Africa Walter Plata Walter Plata lectures in the Depart· ment of Design, University of Nairobi, Kenya. He was educated and trained in Germany, where he started designing visual communication in 1950. In 1961 he began teaching as assistant professor of graphic design at Rhode Island School of Design and has since been both a designer and teacher in many countries 8 National Institute of Design, Paldi, Ahmedabad, India Walter Plata Below, one of the projects undertaken by the Institute, the design of a Devanagari script suitable for mechan­ised printing. Devanagari script is used by the 237 million Hindi speaking people of India. Many of the other scripts used by the various linguistic groups in India are derived from Devanagari. Within the context of a national programme for mass education and improved communi­cation, the development of a Deva­nagari script suitable for mechanised printing, such as typewriting, type­casting and photocomposition, was vitally important. The consultant for this project was Adrian Frutiger. 9 An American view of British graphic design education Al Gowan Al Gowan is head of Graphic Design at Boston University, USA, and edits Designcourse, an international quarterly. He operates a freelance design office in Cambridge, Massachusetts. 10 Relating teaching to what is known about learning David Warren Piper David Warren Piper is an educational psychologist with considerable experience of teaching in design and architectural schools. He is currently working at the University Teaching Methods Unit of the University of London Institute of Education. 12 Learning at home for pre-school children 345 Limited is a company specializing in the prod

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Table of Contents 1 Introduction 2 Foreword Edward Wegman Edward Wegman is Head of Unesco's International Book Year Unit and we are grateful to him for providing this foreword to our fifth issue. 3 Books and barbarity John Olford John Offord is a writer and philosopher, currently teaching in the Liberal Studies Department of a Design School in London. 4 The role of the book designer Peter Kneebone and Germano Facetti Peter Kneebone is one of the founder members of lcograda and is currently Chairman of its Signs and Symbols Commission. Germano Facetti is a graphic designer with an international reputation, probably best known for his work for Penguin Books. 5 Visual aids Bruce Robertson and Robert Chapman Bruce Robertson and Robert Chapman are directors of DIAGRAM, a London based cooperative of statisticians and designers. 8 Some tasks for future book design Albert Kapr Professor Albert Kapr is Principal of the Hochschule fur Grafik und Buchkunst in Leipzig. 10 The book in a changing cultural climate Patrick Wallis Burke Patrick Wallis Burke, Executive Editor of this journal, is also Principal Lecturer in Graphic Design to the School of Graphic Design, Ravensbourne, a Diploma College near London. 12 The essential book Edward Wright Edward Wright is Head of the Graphics Department at Chelsea School of Art. He is a member of the SIAD/STD Typographer's Computer Working Group. 16 The changing responsi­bilities of the typographic designer G W Ovink G W Ovink is art consultant for Tetterode-Nederland and extra­ordinary professor at the University of Amsterdam in history and aesthetics of the art of printing and allied trades. Dr Ovink is also a board member of the Association Typographique Internationale. 18 Designing the International Book Year symbol Michel Olyff is a consultant designer to a wide variety of industrial concerns. He is a member of the Board of the Chambre des Graphistes (CBG) and Union

Table of Contents 1 Introduction 2 Foreword Edward Wegman Edward Wegman is Head of Unesco's International Book Year Unit and we are grateful to him for providing this foreword to our fifth issue. 3 Books and barbarity John Olford John Offord is a writer and philosopher, currently teaching in the Liberal Studies Department of a Design School in London. 4 The role of the book designer Peter Kneebone and Germano Facetti Peter Kneebone is one of the founder members of lcograda and is currently Chairman of its Signs and Symbols Commission. Germano Facetti is a graphic designer with an international reputation, probably best known for his work for Penguin Books. 5 Visual aids Bruce Robertson and Robert Chapman Bruce Robertson and Robert Chapman are directors of DIAGRAM, a London based cooperative of statisticians and designers. 8 Some tasks for future book design Albert Kapr Professor Albert Kapr is Principal of the Hochschule fur Grafik und Buchkunst in Leipzig. 10 The book in a changing cultural climate Patrick Wallis Burke Patrick Wallis Burke, Executive Editor of this journal, is also Principal Lecturer in Graphic Design to the School of Graphic Design, Ravensbourne, a Diploma College near London. 12 The essential book Edward Wright Edward Wright is Head of the Graphics Department at Chelsea School of Art. He is a member of the SIAD/STD Typographer's Computer Working Group. 16 The changing responsi­bilities of the typographic designer G W Ovink G W Ovink is art consultant for Tetterode-Nederland and extra­ordinary professor at the University of Amsterdam in history and aesthetics of the art of printing and allied trades. Dr Ovink is also a board member of the Association Typographique Internationale. 18 Designing the International Book Year symbol Michel Olyff is a consultant designer to a wide variety of industrial concerns. He is a member of the Board of the Chambre des Graphistes (CBG) and Union

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Table of Contents 1 Introduction 2 The working man's philosophy of art Sydney Lewis Sydney Lewis has headed his own design and printing firm for ten years. He has just completed a sabbatical year of study at London· University reading Philosophy of Symbolic Form. He is currently a vice-president of the International Council of Graphic Design Associations 4 Some aspects of design from the perspective of a woman designer Sheila Levrant de Bretteville Sheila Levrant de Bretteville is a young American woman designer who currently runs an architectural and design practice with her husband in Los Angeles. She is a graphic designer, teacher, critic, and mother to a three year old boy called Jason. 8 The Women’s Design Program California Institute of the Arts As she indicated in her article, Sheila de Bretteville has been connected with the Women's Design Program at the California Institute of the Arts. Because the work of this program seems to demonstrate an important attempt to embody feminist principles into a course of study, we publish a selection of work by some of its students. 12 Alphanumeric symbols for mosaic printers and display tubes J M Dirken, H van Campenhout, W Crouwel, J L de Kroes et al Bruce Robertson and Robert Chapman are directors of DIAGRAM, a London based cooperative of statisticians and designers. 15 LoCoS-an experimental pictorial language Yukio Ota Yukio Ota is a Japanese graphic designer who has spent a number of years in developing an experimental pictorial language. In this short article he explains the general principles upon which it operates. 20 Legibility research-the ergonomics of print Jeremy J Foster Jeremy J Foster is a lecturer in psychology and editor of Legibility Research Abstracts. As a research fellow at the Manchester Polytechnic he conducted a programme of research into the legibility of print. 24 Note to contributors

Table of Contents 1 Introduction 2 The working man's philosophy of art Sydney Lewis Sydney Lewis has headed his own design and printing firm for ten years. He has just completed a sabbatical year of study at London· University reading Philosophy of Symbolic Form. He is currently a vice-president of the International Council of Graphic Design Associations 4 Some aspects of design from the perspective of a woman designer Sheila Levrant de Bretteville Sheila Levrant de Bretteville is a young American woman designer who currently runs an architectural and design practice with her husband in Los Angeles. She is a graphic designer, teacher, critic, and mother to a three year old boy called Jason. 8 The Women’s Design Program California Institute of the Arts As she indicated in her article, Sheila de Bretteville has been connected with the Women's Design Program at the California Institute of the Arts. Because the work of this program seems to demonstrate an important attempt to embody feminist principles into a course of study, we publish a selection of work by some of its students. 12 Alphanumeric symbols for mosaic printers and display tubes J M Dirken, H van Campenhout, W Crouwel, J L de Kroes et al Bruce Robertson and Robert Chapman are directors of DIAGRAM, a London based cooperative of statisticians and designers. 15 LoCoS-an experimental pictorial language Yukio Ota Yukio Ota is a Japanese graphic designer who has spent a number of years in developing an experimental pictorial language. In this short article he explains the general principles upon which it operates. 20 Legibility research-the ergonomics of print Jeremy J Foster Jeremy J Foster is a lecturer in psychology and editor of Legibility Research Abstracts. As a research fellow at the Manchester Polytechnic he conducted a programme of research into the legibility of print. 24 Note to contributors

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Table of Contents 1 Introduction 2 Type in our environment Armin Hofmann This short article is taken from the introductory remarks to an illustrated Tecture given by Armin Hofmann at the 16th International Congress on 'Education in Letterforms' held in Copenhagen. The Congress was organised by the Association Typographique Internationale, and we are grateful to them for their permission to publish this extract. 3 A proposition for education in letterforms and handwriting Wim Crouwel The text of Wim Crouwel's article is taken from a paper given at the 16th International Congress on 'Education in Letterforms', held in Copenhagen during August 1973. The Congress was organised by the Association Typographique Internationale, and we are grateful for their permission to publish it in this issue. 4 Investigation into colour preferences Tom Porter 6 Swiss posters for Amnesty International In July 1973, the Associ­ation of Swiss Graphic Designers (Association Suisse des Graphistes ASG) sent a letter to all its members, associates and students, asking them to take part in a poster design project for Amnesty International. The subject chosen was: "How the graphic designer sees the problem of the torture of political prisoners…» A jury representing the ASG and Amnesty International has chosen one of the submitted designs for use as an official poster. The posters were exhibited recently. None was given pride of place nor was any order of merit indicated. The sole aim of the exhibi­tion was to show the many differing interpretations of the theme. It showed also the deep concern of Swiss graphic designers over the use of torture. Shown here are 30 of the 75 posters which were exhibited. The numbers are intended only as a means of identifying the designers. They do not indicate any order of merit.. 8 Sound-writing Kingsley Read George Bernard Shaw died convinced that a new English alphabet was needed to enable people to write an

Table of Contents 1 Introduction 2 Type in our environment Armin Hofmann This short article is taken from the introductory remarks to an illustrated Tecture given by Armin Hofmann at the 16th International Congress on 'Education in Letterforms' held in Copenhagen. The Congress was organised by the Association Typographique Internationale, and we are grateful to them for their permission to publish this extract. 3 A proposition for education in letterforms and handwriting Wim Crouwel The text of Wim Crouwel's article is taken from a paper given at the 16th International Congress on 'Education in Letterforms', held in Copenhagen during August 1973. The Congress was organised by the Association Typographique Internationale, and we are grateful for their permission to publish it in this issue. 4 Investigation into colour preferences Tom Porter 6 Swiss posters for Amnesty International In July 1973, the Associ­ation of Swiss Graphic Designers (Association Suisse des Graphistes ASG) sent a letter to all its members, associates and students, asking them to take part in a poster design project for Amnesty International. The subject chosen was: "How the graphic designer sees the problem of the torture of political prisoners…» A jury representing the ASG and Amnesty International has chosen one of the submitted designs for use as an official poster. The posters were exhibited recently. None was given pride of place nor was any order of merit indicated. The sole aim of the exhibi­tion was to show the many differing interpretations of the theme. It showed also the deep concern of Swiss graphic designers over the use of torture. Shown here are 30 of the 75 posters which were exhibited. The numbers are intended only as a means of identifying the designers. They do not indicate any order of merit.. 8 Sound-writing Kingsley Read George Bernard Shaw died convinced that a new English alphabet was needed to enable people to write an

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Table of Contents 1 Introduction 3 One writing for one world­—the pioneer work of C K Bliss Patrick Wallis Burke Experiments conducted by teachers have shown that children grasp these pictorial Blissymbols quicker than words. They can read new combinations they have never seen before, and they can boldly and logically combine new meanings they need when writing to penfriends who speak other languages. 7 TypoAsia 74 Sato Keinosuke The majority of participating countries use Indian type letters. Syllables are formed by adding vowel signs over, under, or on both sides of the consonant. If typefaces are constructed with the vowel signs integral with the character, the number of pieces becomes extremely large. Consequently, the vowel signs are cast separately from the consonants, as additional characters. There are a great many, and they are very small, so that it takes a lot of time to set type. They are also easy to damage or lose. For syllables that are used very frequently, the vowel signs are made integral with the character. As a result, there is a real need for studies of frequency of syllables to be undertaken. 8 'Stamp on it'—some aspects of postage stamp design Stuart Rose The author, who is Design Advisor to the British Post Office, gives a short historical survey of British postage stamp design, from the first ever stamp (the Penny Black of 1840), to the present day. He then goes on to discuss the various difficulties that accompany the design of the many commemorative issues that are now produced in Britain. 12 Easier than ABC-some experiments with a 'plastic' language Peter Watson Today Charlie W is a star pupil. A year ago he was a mental write-off to many people. He had an IQ of only 15 then (the average is 100), and the chances of him ever being able to look after himself or do any of the ordinary things which children enjoy seemed completely beyond him. 13 Communication in an environment and by an environment Peter

Table of Contents 1 Introduction 3 One writing for one world­—the pioneer work of C K Bliss Patrick Wallis Burke Experiments conducted by teachers have shown that children grasp these pictorial Blissymbols quicker than words. They can read new combinations they have never seen before, and they can boldly and logically combine new meanings they need when writing to penfriends who speak other languages. 7 TypoAsia 74 Sato Keinosuke The majority of participating countries use Indian type letters. Syllables are formed by adding vowel signs over, under, or on both sides of the consonant. If typefaces are constructed with the vowel signs integral with the character, the number of pieces becomes extremely large. Consequently, the vowel signs are cast separately from the consonants, as additional characters. There are a great many, and they are very small, so that it takes a lot of time to set type. They are also easy to damage or lose. For syllables that are used very frequently, the vowel signs are made integral with the character. As a result, there is a real need for studies of frequency of syllables to be undertaken. 8 'Stamp on it'—some aspects of postage stamp design Stuart Rose The author, who is Design Advisor to the British Post Office, gives a short historical survey of British postage stamp design, from the first ever stamp (the Penny Black of 1840), to the present day. He then goes on to discuss the various difficulties that accompany the design of the many commemorative issues that are now produced in Britain. 12 Easier than ABC-some experiments with a 'plastic' language Peter Watson Today Charlie W is a star pupil. A year ago he was a mental write-off to many people. He had an IQ of only 15 then (the average is 100), and the chances of him ever being able to look after himself or do any of the ordinary things which children enjoy seemed completely beyond him. 13 Communication in an environment and by an environment Peter

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Table of Contents 1 Introduction 2 Edugraphology—the myths of design and the design of myths Victor Papanek Design philosophy and the designer's self-image have been victim to a series of shocks. Some twenty years ago designers saw themselves primarily as artists, able to close the gap between technology and market­ ing through their concern with form, function, colour, texture, harmony and proportion. For an industrial designer or architect, a further concern was with cost, convenience and "taste." Within ten years the designer's role had broadened into a systems approach, showing greater interest in production, distribution, market-testing and sales. This opened the door to team-design, although with the team largely made up of the technocrats, sales specialists and modish "persuaders." 4 The myth of the 26 letter Roman alphabet Patrick Wallis Burke The alphabet is the last, the most highly developed, the most convenient and the most easily adaptable system of writing. Alphabetic writing is now universally employed by civilized peoples; its use is acquired in childhood with ease. There is an enormous advantage, obviously, in the use of letters which represent single sounds rather than ideas or syllables. No sinologist knows all the 80,000 or so Chinese symbols, but it is also far from easy to master the 9,000 or so symbols actually employed by Chinese scholars. How far easier it is to use the 22 or 24 or 26 signs only! —David Diringer, The alphabet 9 Kingsley Read—a pioneer of an English phonetic alphabet Patrick Wallis Burke Whilst this issue of icographic was being prepared, my dear friend Kingsley Read died. For almost a year now, he and I had worked on the refining of his last project-Sound-Spell, which is described on pages 10-13. When I looked through the many letters that had passed between us, and thought of the many times that we had spoken on the telephone, it seemed almost impossible that our association lasted only one year

Table of Contents 1 Introduction 2 Edugraphology—the myths of design and the design of myths Victor Papanek Design philosophy and the designer's self-image have been victim to a series of shocks. Some twenty years ago designers saw themselves primarily as artists, able to close the gap between technology and market­ ing through their concern with form, function, colour, texture, harmony and proportion. For an industrial designer or architect, a further concern was with cost, convenience and "taste." Within ten years the designer's role had broadened into a systems approach, showing greater interest in production, distribution, market-testing and sales. This opened the door to team-design, although with the team largely made up of the technocrats, sales specialists and modish "persuaders." 4 The myth of the 26 letter Roman alphabet Patrick Wallis Burke The alphabet is the last, the most highly developed, the most convenient and the most easily adaptable system of writing. Alphabetic writing is now universally employed by civilized peoples; its use is acquired in childhood with ease. There is an enormous advantage, obviously, in the use of letters which represent single sounds rather than ideas or syllables. No sinologist knows all the 80,000 or so Chinese symbols, but it is also far from easy to master the 9,000 or so symbols actually employed by Chinese scholars. How far easier it is to use the 22 or 24 or 26 signs only! —David Diringer, The alphabet 9 Kingsley Read—a pioneer of an English phonetic alphabet Patrick Wallis Burke Whilst this issue of icographic was being prepared, my dear friend Kingsley Read died. For almost a year now, he and I had worked on the refining of his last project-Sound-Spell, which is described on pages 10-13. When I looked through the many letters that had passed between us, and thought of the many times that we had spoken on the telephone, it seemed almost impossible that our association lasted only one year

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Table of Contents 3 The significance of lsotype Michael Twyman The author discusses the pioneer work of Otto Neurath and his lsotype team. Neurath saw the need to establish conventions for picture language in order to make communi­ cation easier and more effective. Obviously, the major influence of the lsotype movement is seen most clearly in the field of graphic statistics but they also offered some important lessons in the way they approached communication problems. 10 lsotype in the USA As a brief supplement to Michael Twyman's article, we show some of the symbols designed in the United States by Pictorial Statistics (an American offshoot of the lsotype movement) in the 1930s. 11 Traveller's symbols Thomas R Hofmann The author outlines the history of the Institute of Design at Illinois Institute of Technology, from its founding in 1937 under Moholy-Nagy up to the present time. He reassesses the original Bauhaus approach to design and describes the many changes in emphasis that have taken place at the Institute. He also contends that, in spite of these necessary changes, the Institute of Design still represents a thriving, legitimate offspring of the original Bauhaus founded 56 years earlier. 12 Bauhaus and grandson of Bauhaus Robert A Manning The author believes that opportunities are being lost for a more painless introduction of international symbols for the traveller. He discusses why he thinks that graphic symbols should not be allowed to stand mute without some form of explanation as to their meaning. 14 Towards a more consistent English spelling JJ Dames The author, a Dutchman who has spent most of his life in Africa, discusses the problems of English spelling. He provides a timely reminder that the problems of English orthography should no longer be the sole concern of those who speak it as their mother tongue. Because of its primacy as a second world language, millions of people from all cultures are vitally interested in h

Table of Contents 3 The significance of lsotype Michael Twyman The author discusses the pioneer work of Otto Neurath and his lsotype team. Neurath saw the need to establish conventions for picture language in order to make communi­ cation easier and more effective. Obviously, the major influence of the lsotype movement is seen most clearly in the field of graphic statistics but they also offered some important lessons in the way they approached communication problems. 10 lsotype in the USA As a brief supplement to Michael Twyman's article, we show some of the symbols designed in the United States by Pictorial Statistics (an American offshoot of the lsotype movement) in the 1930s. 11 Traveller's symbols Thomas R Hofmann The author outlines the history of the Institute of Design at Illinois Institute of Technology, from its founding in 1937 under Moholy-Nagy up to the present time. He reassesses the original Bauhaus approach to design and describes the many changes in emphasis that have taken place at the Institute. He also contends that, in spite of these necessary changes, the Institute of Design still represents a thriving, legitimate offspring of the original Bauhaus founded 56 years earlier. 12 Bauhaus and grandson of Bauhaus Robert A Manning The author believes that opportunities are being lost for a more painless introduction of international symbols for the traveller. He discusses why he thinks that graphic symbols should not be allowed to stand mute without some form of explanation as to their meaning. 14 Towards a more consistent English spelling JJ Dames The author, a Dutchman who has spent most of his life in Africa, discusses the problems of English spelling. He provides a timely reminder that the problems of English orthography should no longer be the sole concern of those who speak it as their mother tongue. Because of its primacy as a second world language, millions of people from all cultures are vitally interested in h

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Table of Contents 2 Divergent and convergent tendencies of the Latin and Cyrillic (Russian) alphabet Albert Kapr The author thinks it likely that there will be a gradual, step-by-step development of a phonetic system of writing which will encompass ever more languages. He traces the joint ancestry of both the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets and the debt that both owe to the early Greek alphabet. 9 Probing pictures for a lingua franca J B Deregowski The author, a lecturer in psychology, discusses the commonly held notion that pictures might provide a lingua franca, free of all cultural and ethnic boundaries and equally comprehensible to all men. He suggests that such an idea is erroneous and that evidence from travellers, anthropologists and psychologists contradicts the layman's view. It would seem that members of many cultural groups find interpret· ation of pictures difficult. 10 Posters for Peace by Israeli design students Yarom Vardimon The author briefly describes a poster project which he initiated at the Bezalel Academy in Jerusalem for final year graphic design students, on the theme "Israel wants Peace." He shows a selection of the work which they produced and each student contributes an explanatory note concerning the thinking that led to the solutions they offered to this difficult communication problem. 14 First steps on a thousand mile journey—part 2 Patrick Wallis Burke Many layman think that the Chinese write in pictures and that their writing system is unphonetic. In his second article, the author explains how the Chinese phonetic system works and goes on to describe the special characters known as 'specifiers' or 'radicals.' He gives some examples of ways in which the radicals can bt: combined to give new meanings, and uses them to demonstrate how metaphors for human experience seem to have a universal quality. 22 The indaequacies of the Roman alphabet and proposed phonetic alphabet with concept-related phonograms Anthony J Ro

Table of Contents 2 Divergent and convergent tendencies of the Latin and Cyrillic (Russian) alphabet Albert Kapr The author thinks it likely that there will be a gradual, step-by-step development of a phonetic system of writing which will encompass ever more languages. He traces the joint ancestry of both the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets and the debt that both owe to the early Greek alphabet. 9 Probing pictures for a lingua franca J B Deregowski The author, a lecturer in psychology, discusses the commonly held notion that pictures might provide a lingua franca, free of all cultural and ethnic boundaries and equally comprehensible to all men. He suggests that such an idea is erroneous and that evidence from travellers, anthropologists and psychologists contradicts the layman's view. It would seem that members of many cultural groups find interpret· ation of pictures difficult. 10 Posters for Peace by Israeli design students Yarom Vardimon The author briefly describes a poster project which he initiated at the Bezalel Academy in Jerusalem for final year graphic design students, on the theme "Israel wants Peace." He shows a selection of the work which they produced and each student contributes an explanatory note concerning the thinking that led to the solutions they offered to this difficult communication problem. 14 First steps on a thousand mile journey—part 2 Patrick Wallis Burke Many layman think that the Chinese write in pictures and that their writing system is unphonetic. In his second article, the author explains how the Chinese phonetic system works and goes on to describe the special characters known as 'specifiers' or 'radicals.' He gives some examples of ways in which the radicals can bt: combined to give new meanings, and uses them to demonstrate how metaphors for human experience seem to have a universal quality. 22 The indaequacies of the Roman alphabet and proposed phonetic alphabet with concept-related phonograms Anthony J Ro

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Table of Contents 2 Cyrillic Gothic: formal modifications to the design of a Russian typeface Andre Gurtler and Christian Mengelt The authors describe some of the problems involved in designing a new four-weight, sans-serif Cyrillic type­ face. Their text and its illustrations, show how individual characters were modified so as to giv,I! an overall consistency to their proposed alphabet. 5 Signing system for an Argentinian new town The article describes and illustrates a signing system developed for a new Argentinian town. The scheme, besides attempting to provide a rational visual communi­ cation system for this particular housing complex, was also designed to serve as a possible model for other developments of this kind throughout Argentina. The scheme makes extensive use of pictographic signs. Many were developed to serve as a means of identifying the various facilities offered by the housing complex-schools, shopping centres, supermarkets, cinemas, etc. In addition, each of the sections, streets, patios or plazas, were given identifying names which could be portrayed pictorially. 9 The language of colour Tom Porter and Byron Mikellides The authors argue that colour is a language that, to some extent, modern man seems to have forgotten. As a result, the way in which we use colour in our everyday world is almost completely arbitrary, since we have lost the ability to manipulate either the biological or symbolic languages of colour. They instance much interesting research into the effects of colour on human performance and motivation, and they point to a wide discrepancy between popular colour preferences and those of the 'sophisticated' archi­ tect and designer. They believe that designers need to learn far more about colour and that this, in turn, might prompt a far more adventurous use of colour in our present-day environment. 11 lsotype in the USA We publish a further selection of pictographic symbols produced in America by Pictor

Table of Contents 2 Cyrillic Gothic: formal modifications to the design of a Russian typeface Andre Gurtler and Christian Mengelt The authors describe some of the problems involved in designing a new four-weight, sans-serif Cyrillic type­ face. Their text and its illustrations, show how individual characters were modified so as to giv,I! an overall consistency to their proposed alphabet. 5 Signing system for an Argentinian new town The article describes and illustrates a signing system developed for a new Argentinian town. The scheme, besides attempting to provide a rational visual communi­ cation system for this particular housing complex, was also designed to serve as a possible model for other developments of this kind throughout Argentina. The scheme makes extensive use of pictographic signs. Many were developed to serve as a means of identifying the various facilities offered by the housing complex-schools, shopping centres, supermarkets, cinemas, etc. In addition, each of the sections, streets, patios or plazas, were given identifying names which could be portrayed pictorially. 9 The language of colour Tom Porter and Byron Mikellides The authors argue that colour is a language that, to some extent, modern man seems to have forgotten. As a result, the way in which we use colour in our everyday world is almost completely arbitrary, since we have lost the ability to manipulate either the biological or symbolic languages of colour. They instance much interesting research into the effects of colour on human performance and motivation, and they point to a wide discrepancy between popular colour preferences and those of the 'sophisticated' archi­ tect and designer. They believe that designers need to learn far more about colour and that this, in turn, might prompt a far more adventurous use of colour in our present-day environment. 11 lsotype in the USA We publish a further selection of pictographic symbols produced in America by Pictor

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